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COMMERCIAL CONSTRUCTION INR   0 INR  0
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COMMERCIAL CONSTRUCTION

The Business of Commercial Construction Commercial construction is the business of building and selling or leasing manufacturing or assembly plants, medical centers, retail shopping centers, and standard space for offices. The business varies primarily in the size and scale of the operations. Typically, the commercial builder either contracts with a company or organization to build the facility or builds the facility on speculation that it can be leased or sold at a later time. The Commercial Construction Environment Most commercial construction comes about as a result of a bidding process. An architect's design is let out for bid, competitors submit bids, and the one with the best cost and specification match wins the bid. Usually, but not always, the construction site is already known and secured. Commercial building is driven both by business cycles and population growth. As more people move into a given area demand increases for existing work space. Schools, municipal buildings, retail stores, and offices become more fully occupied driving builders to build office and retail space to meet percieved demand. As the business cycle ramps up, new construction is ordered to provide space for workers and more frequent shoppers. In today's commercial construction environment, many builders now specialize in a single commercial market. Some specialize in high-rize buildings, other hone their expertise in providing heavy infrastructure facilities like water treatment plants or dams. Still others may specialize in tilt slab construction. A certain amount of competitive advantage accues to those who have significant experience in a they type of commercial construction they are bidding on. In many areas this specialization can break down even futher with major parts of a construction project such as perimeter concrete fences being built by a company that specializes in building only this type of fence. Builder's can smooth out inevitable work flow peaks and valleys by taking on projects to refit office space or other commercial buildings. Overlaying all of this are building codes established by towns, cities, and counties. Typically building inspections are fully paid for by the builder in permit fees that can run 3 to 4 percent of the price of the building. Inspectors seem to have thier own timetables on getting out to approve sites so success often depends on building good relationshiops with the inspectors or developing political influence. Keys to Success Successful builders are those who can keep a steady stream of projects under construction. This allows for more predictability in the quality and availability of the needed labor. It also means that discounts can be obtained from suppliers who learn that they can count on a certain volume of business. Similarly, banks and lending institutions enjoy working with builders who are predictable in making their payments. As a result they are more willing to extend credit when it is needed. And successful builders build delays into their plans and schedules. They don't know if sickness or the weather will cause the delays but for sure something almost always does. Those who do it well also manage the expectations of their custoemrs. Setting unrealistic expectations for completion can result in some very unpleasant consequences for buyer and builder alike. Quality is another key to success that should not be overlooked. Those who do it right the first time don't have to take money out of their profits to make things right. Maybe, in the final analysis, the commercial builder must become the great communicator: needing to keep everyone up-to-date on the project status including, workers, sub-contractors, customers, banks, and building inspectors.

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GREEN BUILDING CONCEPT INR   0 INR  0
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GREEN BUILDING CONCEPT

We are developing with sky rocketing pace. We are loading our atmosphere with thousands of pounds of CO2 every year. To offset this CO2 , more trees need to be planted. As per the estimates, in US only, to offset the huge amount of CO2, trees need to be planted on 2.15 billion acres of land!!(The total land in US is 2.3 billion acres). So just planting trees is not at all enough. Research and studies show that the Buildings have significant amount of contribution in polluting the environment. According to US Green Building Council’s study of Environmental impact of buildings (2007), Buildings in the United States contribute 38.9 percent of the nation’s total carbon dioxide emissions, (including 20.8 percent from the residential sector and 18.0 percent from the commercial sector), 39 percent of total energy use, 12 percent of the total water consumption, 71 percent of total electricity consumption. Green-Buildings.jpg The verge at which we have brought Mother Nature in our blind run of development is extremely critical and needs a complete green solution, which is ‘Green Building’. Green Building refers to the incorporation of environment friendly and resource efficient processes at each stage of construction, right from site selection and designing to construction, operation followed by maintenance, renovation or even demolition. The endeavour is to seek minimum possible impact on environment. The concept of Green Building concentrates mainly on two points: · Increasing the efficiency with which buildings use energy, water and materials · Reducing building impacts of human health and the environment, through better site selection, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal throughout the complete life cycle. Going Green in Building constructions avails us many Environmental, Economical as well as Social benefits. History and Components of Green building The increase of fuel costs in 1970’s along with the concern for environment kindled the awareness and encouragement towards Green Buildings. Architects and ecologists started looking for solutions like reflective roofing materials, triple-glazed windows to achieve energy savings. But with the decrease of fuel prices, the Green movement was slowed down and did not receive much encouragement. It was later in early 90’s that the movement got kick start and awareness began to spread about need for sustainable buildings. An official Green home building program started in Austin, Texas in 1991. The movement has gradually gained momentum since then and we can now find significant changes in the newer buildings. History-and-Components-of-Green-building.jpg Sustainable Site Selection: There should be easy availability of public transport and conveniences so as to cut down energy consumption for transportation. A suitably selected site thus gets the benefit of mass transit. Also, rehabilitation of sites damaged by environmental contamination is a better option than any new piece of land where large amount of energy and resource is needed to make the land worthy of building on. Rehabilitation thus saves large amount of energy. Already existing landscape, soil and natural features should be protected. For this reason, hard paving on the site should be avoided to preserve top soil and ease rain water harvesting. There should be minimum storm water runoff. Material and Resources · Sustainable construction material are chosen keeping in mind various characteristics like zero or low toxicity, high recyclability, zero or low off gassing of harmful air emissions, durability, reused and recycled content, sustainably harvested material. · Dimensional planning and other material efficiency strategies are used to reduce the construction costs. Construction and demolition material can be reused and recycled for e.g. inert demolition material can be used as base course for landfills. Proper planning for managing materials through deconstruction, demolition and construction is done. Efficient planning of utilities to minimize · Utilization of rapidly renewable materials, such as bamboo flooring, wool carpets, strawboard, cotton ball insulation (made from denim scrap), genuine linoleum flooring, or poplar oriented-strand board (OSB). Using rapid renewable helps reduce the use and depletion of finite raw material. · Use of materials that are available locally is preferred over materials that need to be brought from distant places. It saves transportation costs. Also, alternative materials that can be generated from waste with lesser energy is used over conventional building materials. For example, alternative materials for timber like MDF board, Mica Laminates and Veneers on composite boards should be used instead of natural timber. Industrial waste based bricks and blocks, aerated lightweight BPC concrete blocks, Phospho-Gypsum based blocks can be used for masonry structures. Fly ash, for bricks, outdoor paving and in concrete. Water Efficiency Installation of water efficient or low flow equipments in kitchens and bathrooms to reduce water consumption. · Incorporating waste water management technologies like dual plumbing for using recycled water in toilet flushing or using water conserving fixtures such as low flow shower heads, self closing nozzles on hoses, water closets with dual flush options. · Use of Micro irrigation techniques at sites instead of high pressure sprayers. · Recirculation system for centralized hot water distribution. · For landscaping purpose, local plants and trees are used as they consume less water. · Provisions for reusing and recycling water are made to ensure efficient water management. · Using treated waste water, non potable water for site irrigation. Raw sewage can be recycled using aquatic plants like duckweed and water hyacinth to produce clean water suitable for re-use in irrigation and industry. · Integrating Rain water harvesting system in building design to ensure maximum possible utilization of rain water.

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